Given Below is the draft of proposed Municipal Solid Waste Management and Handling Rules 2015 to be implemented in India soon. Although the proposed MSW rules 2015 are better than MSW rules 2000, still there are some loopholes that allow corruption in waste management.
Our suggestions to improve the proposed MSW Rules 2015:
- Municipal solid waste segregation machinery must be compulsory before manufacturing finished products from Municipal solid waste. Segregation machinery should be designed to distinctly separate biodegradable, metal, plastics and inert. Segregation machinery like trommel, air density separator, bag opener must be made compulsory.
(Most of the Municipal solid waste generated in India is not segregated at source. solid waste is the mixture of biodegradable, non-biodegradable & inert materials. Without effective segregation of municipal solid waste no waste management Technology will succeed.)
- Biodegradable material must be sent for composting which can be used for farming. Biomethanation of biodegradable waste is not sustainable in India because of chemicals, detergents, acid and other components which are harmful to the biomethanation bacteria. Composting is very reliable and simple process. Composting plant Capital infants at least 10 to 15 times lesser than biomethanation plant.
- To ensure that less than 20% of waste goes to landfill site, both composting plants and refuse derived fuel manufacturing plants must be installed in the solid waste management facility. To check the effectiveness of solid waste management operations, following periodic inspection is must be held to assess the following key performance indicators:
- Quantity of waste going to the landfill site Must be assessed on monthly basis
- assessment of landfill site volumetric consumption per month
- absence of constant combustion and smoke from landfill site
- no foul odor with beyond radius of 500 metre from centre of landfill site
- keep a check on if the land fill height is as per the pollution control board clearance or the waste stacked at height more than height approved by the pollution control board.
- Claims of waste management contractor that certain quantity of compost of recyclable have been recovered and sold must be verified by checking the in sales invoices of compost and refuse derived fuel
- Overall Municipal solid waste has very low calorific value. hence the power of plants that use whole Municipal solid waste as fuel can never be sustainable. only the plastic fraction Municipal solid waste has high calorific value. plastic waste is end of life plastics and cannot be appropriate plastic fabrication machinery should be installed. The energy must be recovered from this plastic by use of effective plastic pyrolysis Technology. plastic pyrolysis Technology plastic must be converted into good quality industrial Diesel And this industrial diesel can be sold outside to manufacture electricity produce heat in industries.
- Municipal solid waste management facilities should discourage installations of power plants. power plants always exist in the vicinity of any City. Refuse derived fuel or plastic pyrolysis oil manufactured in solid waste management plants supplier to the power plants to produce power. this policy will prevent excessive investments in power plants in solid waste management facilities. Across India, huge amount of money has been wasted in power plants installed inside the solid waste management facility. Power plants installed as part of waste management facility are not commercially viable because of excessive investments using government funds.
- There is a huge difference between the solid waste generated in developed countries and the solid waste generated in India. the solid waste generated in developed countries is segregated at source and varies in composition and calorific value. Waste management machinery and Technology suppliers from developed countries do not have necessary experience and expertise to manage Municipal solid waste which is not segregated at source. Importing of waste management Technologies and machinery from developed countries must be
- Most of the municipal corporations while publishing the tender document specify very stringent & unreasonable qualifying criteria. Because the waste management is not correct effectively in India following qualifying criteria should be eliminated from the tender documents:
- Past waste management experience of more than 5 year
- qualifying criteria specifying turnover of more than 50 CR of the organisation participating in the tender
- any qualifying criteria that will prevent qualification of less than 1 or 2 waste management contractor across India
Unless solid waste management rules bring transparency in waste management tendering process, the effective waste management looks like a remote possibility in India.